Research Citations: 

Bettmann, J. E., Gillis, H. L., Speelman, E. A., Parry, K. J., & Case, J. M. (2016). A Meta-analysis of Wilderness Therapy Outcomes for Private Pay Clients. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25 (9), 2659-2673.

Bettmann, J.E., Tucker, A., Behrens, E., & Vanderloo, M. (2017). Changes in older adolescents and young adults’ attachment, separation, and mental health during wilderness therapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(2), 511-522. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0577-4


Chang, T., Tucker, A., Javorski, S., Gass, M., & Norton, C. (2016). Cultural issues in adventure programming: Applying Hofstede’s five dimensions to assessment and practice. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning.Advance online publication. /10.1080/14729679.2016.1259116


Combs, K. M., Hoag, M., Javorski, S., & Roberts, S. (2016). Adolescent self-assessment of an Outdoor Behavioral Health program: longitudinal outcomes and trajectories of change. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(11), 3322-3330. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0497-3

DeMille, S. M., & Montgomery, M. (2016). Integrating narrative family therapy in an Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare program: A case study. Journal of Contemporary Family Therapy, 38(1), 3-13.

Gillis, H.L., Kivlighan, D. M., & Russell, K.C. (2016) Between-Client and Within-ClientEngagement and Outcome in a Residential Wilderness Treatment Group: An Actor Partner Interdependence Analysis. 53(4 ), 413-423.

Gillis Jr, H. L., Speelman, E., Linville, N., Bailey, E., Kalle, A., Oglesbee, N., … & Jensen, J. (2016). Metaanalysis of Treatment Outcomes Measured by the Y-OQ and Y-OQ-SR Comparing Wilderness and Non-Wilderness Treatment Programs. Child & Youth Care Forum, 45(6), 851-863.

Hoag, M. J., Combs, K. M., Roberts, S. D, & Logan, P. (2016). Pushing beyond outcome: What else changes in wilderness therapy? Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8(1), 45-56.


Liermann, K., & Norton, C.L. (2016). Positive relationship outcomes between parents and adolescent children following a therapeutic wilderness program for struggling teens. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38, 14-22. doi: 10.1007/s10591-015-9371-5


Liermann, K., & Norton, C.L. (2016). Enhancing family communication: Examining the impact of a therapeutic wilderness program for struggling teens and parents. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38(1), 14-22. doi: 10.1007/s10591-015-9371-5


Norton, C.L., & Peyton, J. (2017). Mindfulness-based practice in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 9(1), 7-20.


Norton, C.L., & Tucker, A.R.., Farnham, M., Borroel, F., & Pelletier, A. (2017). Family enrichment adventure therapy: A mixed methods study examining the impact of trauma-informed adventure therapy on children and families affected by abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma. Advanced online publication.doi: 10.1007/s40653-017-0133-4


Roberts, S., Stroud, D., Hoag, M. J., & Combs, K. M. (2016). Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Client and Treatment Characteristics Effects on Young Adult Outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education , 39(3), 288-302 doi: 10.1177/1053825916655445


Roberts, S., Stroud, D., Hoag, M. J., & Massey, K. (2017). Outdoor behavioral healthcare: A longitudinal assessment of young adult outcomes. Journal of Counseling and Development, 95, 45-55.

Russell, K., & Gillis, H. L. (2017). The Adventure Therapy Experience Scale: The psychometric properties of a scale to measure the unique factors moderating an adventure therapy experience. Journal of Experiential Education, Advance online publication. doi: 1053825917690541.

Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Heppner, W. (2016). An examination of mindfulness-based experiences through adventure in substance use disorder treatment for young adult males: A pilot study.  Mindfulness, 7(2), 320-328. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0441-4

Russell, K.C.(2005). Two years later: A qualitative assessment of youth-well-being and the role of aftercare in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34, 3, 209-239.

Russell, K.C. (2003). Assessing treatment outcomes in outdoor behavioral healthcare using the Youth Outcome Questionnaire. Child and Youth Care Forum. 32, 6, 355-381.

Russell, K.C. (2004). Two years later A qualitative assessment of youth-well-being and the role of aftercare in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Technical Report 1, Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Research Cooperative, School of Health and Human Services, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH. 43 pp

Russell, K.C. (2002). A longitudinal assessment of treatment outcomes in outdoor behavioral healthcare. Technical Report 28, Idaho Forest Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID. 35 pp

Russell, K. C. (2002). Does outdoor behavioral healthcare work? A review of studies on the effectiveness of OBH as an intervention and treatment. Journal of Therapeutic Camping, Summer/Fall, 2, 1, 5-12.

Tucker, A., Combs, K. M., Bettman, J., Chang, T., Graham, S., Hoag, M., & Tatum, C. (2016). Longitudinal outcomes for youth transported to wilderness therapy programs. Research on Social Work Practice. [Advanced online edition]. doi: 10.1177/1049731516647486.

Tucker, A.R., Norton, C.L., DeMille, S., & Hobson. (2016). The impact of wilderness therapyon physical and emotional health: Utilizing an integrated approach in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(1), 15-30. doi: 10.1177/1053825915607536

Tucker, A.R., Norton, C.L., Itin, C., Hobson, J., & Alvarez, M.A. (2016). Adventure therapy: Non-deliberative group therapy in action. Social Work with Groups, 39(2-3), 194-207. doi: 10.1080/01609513.2015.1048416

Tucker, A., Paul, M., Hobson. J., Karoff, M., & Gass, M. (2016). Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Its impact on family functioning. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 8, 21-40. doi: 10.19157/JTSP.issue. 08.01.05

Tucker, A., Widmer, M., Faddis, T., Randolph, B., & Gass, M. (2016). Family therapy in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Current practices and future possibilities. Contemporary Family Therapy, 38, 32-42. doi: 10.1007/s10591-015-9370-6